An alloy is a material having metallic properties synthesized by a certain method from two or more metals and metals or nonmetals. Generally obtained by melting a homogeneous liquid and solidifying. According to the number of constituent elements, it can be divided into binary alloys, ternary alloys and multicomponent alloys.
The alloy is a macroscopically homogeneous, multi-component chemical containing metal elements, generally having metallic properties. Any element can be used as an alloying element, but a large amount of metal is added. The most basic and independent substance of the alloy is called a component, or Referred to as the yuan. The alloy consisting of two components is called a binary alloy. The alloy composed of three components is called a ternary alloy. The alloy composed of three or more components is called a multi-component alloy. It may be a single phase or a mixture of complex phases; it may be crystalline, or it may be quasicrystalline or amorphous. The crystal alloys differ in atomic radius, electronegativity, and electron concentration depending on their constituent elements. The possible phases are a solid solution that maintains the same structure as the pure element of the substrate, and an inter-mediate phase that does not have the same structure as any of the constituent elements. The mesophase includes a normal valence compound, an electron compound, a laves phase, σ phase, gap phase and interstitial compounds with complex structure, etc. The phase that the alloy may appear in equilibrium can be known from the phase equilibrium diagram.
The structure and properties of the constituent phases of the alloy play a decisive role in the properties of the alloy. At the same time, the change of the alloy structure, ie the relative number of phases in the alloy, the grain size, shape and distribution of the phases, also affect the properties of the alloy. Great influence. Therefore, the use of a combination of various elements to form a variety of different alloy phases, and then appropriate treatment may meet a variety of different performance requirements.
The term “alloy” is also used in polymer chemistry, which refers to a composite material in which a polymer or copolymer is blended with another polymer or elastomer under certain conditions, such as a styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer resin. Blended with butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.